A new bloom – adding ‘collaborate’ to Bloom’s taxonomy





collaborate, Bloom's taxonomy, new Bloom, educational outcomes


There are a number of opportunities for collaboration, within and between universities, locally, internationally, with industry and with other education providers. University graduates are likely to be placed in a work environment where collaboration is required. Collaboration within higher education institutions has been shown to enhance student learning, and collaborative learning to improve student outcomes. A proposal has been made to add ‘collaborate’ to Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, to emphasise the importance of collaboration and to encourage its inclusion in the educational process and assessment. Collaborate is sited between ‘apply’ and ‘analyse’ in the revised Bloom’s taxonomy hierarchy, and the new version named the New Bloom. This opinion piece expands on the concept and adds the specific objective of ‘work or share with others’ with keywords ‘share, cooperate, reciprocate, achieve consensus’. It also offers a non-hierarchical representation of the taxonomy, with collaborate as an important feature of each of the other components. Adding collaborate to Bloom’s taxonomy is recommended to emphasise the importance of collaboration and its contribution to each of the other components of the taxonomy.

Author Biography

Richard Heller, University of Newcastle

Richard Heller is Emeritus Professor at the University of Newcastle, Australia and the University of Manchester, UK. He has 50 years of higher education experience in medicine and public health. As Professor of Public Health in Manchester he established the University’s first online master’s degree. He founded and coordinated Peoples-uni to build public health capacity in developing countries at low cost, through online learning. His recent open access book is The Distributed University for Sustainable Higher Education.


Abegglen, S., Burns, T., and Sinfield, S. (2021) ‘Editorial: collaboration in higher education: partnering with students, colleagues and external stakeholders’, Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 18(7), pp.1-6. Available at: https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol18/iss7/01/ (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruickshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J. and Wittrock, M.C. (eds). (2001) A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York: Longman.

Armstrong, P. (2010) Bloom’s Taxonomy. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Available at: https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/ (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Baloche, L. and Brody, C.M. (2017) ‘Cooperative learning: exploring challenges, crafting innovations’, Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(3), pp.274-283. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2017.1319513 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Bates, A.W. (2019) Teaching in a digital age: Chapter 4.4: Online collaborative learning. Available at: https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/chapter/6-5-online-collaborative-learning/ (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Bloom, B.S., Englehart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H. and Krathwohl, D.R. (1956) The taxonomy of educational objectives, the classification of educational goals, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Company Inc.

Churches, A. (2008). Bloom's Taxonomy Blooms Digitally. Available at: https://www.techlearning.com/news/bloom39s-taxonomy-blooms-digitally (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

European Consortium of Innovative Universities. Available at: https://www.eciu.org/ (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Eizadirad, A. (2019) ‘Decolonizing educational assessment models’, in Eizadirad, A., Decolonizing Educational Assessment. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 203-228. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27462-7 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Foley, C. (2021) ‘Professor who tweeted the coronavirus genome, paving the way for new vaccines, scoops major Australian science award’, The Conversation, 4 November. Available at: https://theconversation.com/professor-who-tweeted-the-coronavirus-genome-paving-the-way-for-new-vaccines-scoops-major-australian-science-award-171208 (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Hammond, M. (2017) ‘Online collaboration and cooperation: the recurring importance of evidence, rationale and viability’ Education and Information Technologies, 22, pp.1005–1024. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9469-x (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Heller, R.F. (2022). The distributed university for sustainable higher education. Singapore: Springer. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6506-6 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Heller, R.F. (2022a) ‘Solutions’, in Heller, R.F., The distributed university for sustainable higher education. Singapore: Springer. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6506-6_3 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Joo, J., Selingo, J.J., and Alamuddin, R. (2019) Unlocking the power of collaboration: how to develop a successful collaborative network in and around higher education. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.312001 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Kezar, A. (2005) ‘Redesigning for collaboration within higher education institutions: an exploration into the developmental process’, Research in Higher Education, 46, pp.831–860. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-004-6227-5 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Koris, R., Palmer, Z. and Oswal, S. (2021) ‘Empowering cross-disciplinary learning through online collaboration among students and faculty from Business English, Website Building, and Accessible Design Fields, Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 18(7), pp.112-134. Available at: https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol18/iss7/08/ (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Krathwohl, D.R. (2002) ‘A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: an overview’, Theory into practice, 41 (4), pp.212-218. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Laal, M. and Ghodsi, S.M. (2012) ‘Benefits of collaborative learning’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, pp.486–490. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.091 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Laurillard’s Conversational Framework. The 6 Learning types – ABC Learning Design. Available at: (https://abc-ld.org/6-learning-types/) (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Laurillard, D., Kennedy, E., Charlton, P., Wild, J. and Dimakopoulos, D. (2018) ‘Using technology to develop teachers as designers of TEL: evaluating the learning designer’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 49, pp.1044-1058. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12697 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

Mintz, S. (2019) ‘Creating a more collaborative higher education ecosystem’, Inside Higher Ed, 17 January. Available at: https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-gamma/creating-more-collaborative-higher-education-ecosystem (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Networked Learning Editorial Collective (NLEC) (2021) ‘Networked Learning: inviting redefinition’, Postdigital Science and Education, 3, pp.312–325. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00167-8 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

OECD (2019) How international collaboration can help build the future of education. Available at: https://issuu.com/oecd.publishing/docs/international_collaboration_-__future_of_education (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

Scager, K., Boonstra, J., Peeters, T., Vulperhorst, J., and Wiegant. F. (2016) ‘Collaborative learning in higher education: evoking positive interdependence’, CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-07-0219 (Accessed: 5 September 2022).

SUNY COIL Center. Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL). Available at: https://coil.suny.edu/ (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

UNESCO (2017) Open educational resources. Available at: https://en.unesco.org/themes/ict-education/oer (Accessed: 10 July 2022).

UNESCO (2021) International Commission on the Futures of Education. Reimagining our futures together: a new social contract for education. Available at: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000379707 (Accessed: 10 July 2022).




How to Cite

Heller, R. (2022) “A new bloom – adding ‘collaborate’ to Bloom’s taxonomy”, Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, (24). doi: 10.47408/jldhe.vi24.906.



Opinion Pieces